The annual meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America was held from Oct. 2 to 6 in Washington, D.C., and attracted more than 5,000 participants from around the world, including scientists, physicians, and other health care professionals. The conference featured comprehensive educational programs that focused on the latest advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases, as well as insight into emerging infections, new diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutic interventions.
In one study, Nkuchia M’ikanatha, Dr.P.H., of the Pennsylvania Department of Health in Harrisburg, and colleagues determined that 96 of 2,520 poultry, ground beef, and pork chop samples (3.8 percent) purchased during 2015 to 2017 from randomly selected stores in Pennsylvania contained nontyphoidal Salmonella. The investigators tested the Salmonella-contaminated meat samples and 109 cultures from human Salmonella infections collected during the same period for susceptibility to 15 antibiotics.
“In the Salmonella cultures from meat, 28 (29.2 percent) were resistant to three or more antibiotic classes and 17 (17.7 percent) were resistant to five or more antibiotic classes. Resistance to ceftriaxone, the antibiotic most often used to treat serious Salmonella infection, was found in three of 25 (12 percent) in 2015, 10 of 37 (27 percent) in 2016, and five of 34 (14.7 percent) in 2017,” M’ikanatha said. “Furthermore, four contained genes that make bacteria resistant to eight antibiotic classes.”
In the Salmonella cultures from humans, 28 (25.7 percent) were resistant to more than three antibiotic classes and 12 (11 percent) were resistant to more than five antibiotic classes. None were resistant to ceftriaxone in 2015, six of 48 (12.5 percent) were resistant in 2016, and nine of 37 (24.3 percent) were resistant in 2017. In addition, two had genes that make bacteria resistant to eight antibiotic classes.
“Consumers should read production labels and make informed choices based on the evidence about the risk of poultry contamination with drug-resistant Salmonella. Resistance genes identified in Salmonella are carried in transmissible elements (e.g., plasmids) and can be shared with other bacteria such as Escherichia coli, resulting in resistance to other drugs,” M’ikanatha added. “Clinicians need to be aware that not all Salmonella infections are caused by ‘garden variety’ Salmonella. When antimicrobial treatment is indicated for severe Salmonella infections, it is important to look at the susceptibility test results, and determine the appropriate drug(s) to use.”
Katie Suda, Pharm.D., of the Hines VA Hospital and the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, and colleagues found that antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental visits may be associated with patient harm.